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Language Specialists
Significant Points
  • About 26 percent of interpreters and translators are self-employed; many freelance and work in this occupation only sporadically.
  • In addition to needing fluency in at least two languages, many interpreters and translators need a bachelor's degree.
  • Employment is expected to grow much faster than average.
  • Job prospects vary by specialty and language.
Nature of the Work

Translation is the general term for transferring written thoughts and ideas from one language into another. The two basic types of translation are generally referred to as verbatim and idiomatic. The verbatim type of translation involves matching linguistic equivalents (word-for-word) and is generally used when translating such limited specifics as names, dates, places, or simple phrases. The idiomatic translation, which is the more common of the two, involves identifying concepts in one language and rewording them in a second language so that the appropriate meaning is conveyed at a given point and time regardless of what this wording may mean in another context. The focus is on the ideas expressed and ignores attempts at finding linguistic equivalents.

The large majority of translations are done manually, although some machine translations are done. In these, the unedited foreign language texts are run through a computer which "translates" and transliterates words and phrases into English. This type of translation can be used with scientific and technical material where the output need only indicate the fundamental content of a document. The translator edits the machine output to revise syntax and grammar, to translate transliterated words and phrases, and to substitute technical terms when the machine glossaries fail to provide English terms which match the foreign terms used.

There are two basic types of interpretation employed in Government -- simultaneous and consecutive. In simultaneous interpretation, the interpreter interprets material at the same time it is being spoken. Actually, there may be a few seconds' interval between the spoken word and the interpretation, but for all practical purposes, the interpretation is being performed simultaneously with the spoken text. This technique is made possible by the use of electronic equipment which allows the transmission of the simultaneous speeches. Conference interpreters often work in a glass-enclosed booth from which they can see the speaker. They listen through earphones to what is being said, while interpreting into a microphone. Consecutive interpreting is the interpreting technique in which the interpreter listens to statements of varying length in one language, and at the conclusion of a statement, translates it orally into another language. Consecutive interpreting is more time-consuming than simultaneous because the speaker must wait for the interpretation before proceeding. In some instances, the interpreter writes ideographic symbols that serve as an aid in consecutive interpreting, as well as in preparing accurate memoranda of conversation.

Differences between translating and interpreting duties are chiefly related to the different circumstances under which translators and interpreters perform their work, i.e., the "read and written" compared with the "heard and spoken." Interpreters must grasp ideas spoken and heard only once. They must express these ideas in the other language instantly, accurately, and completely; in appropriate style; and with the intent of the original speaker. In simultaneous interpretation, this must be done while the original speaker is speaking; in consecutive, as soon as the speaker finishes a passage, which may be of any length. This means that the interpreter must have immediate recall and must make split second decisions about words and concepts with sole responsibility for them. The translator, on the other hand, must translate the written word accurately and in the same spirit and style as it appears in the original text. Translated documents may be subjected to close scrutiny immediately after they are translated, or many years thereafter, since a large number of them become part of the record. The work requires a great deal of research to insure accuracy of nuances, subject-matter detail, and to retain fluency. In general, however, both translator and interpreter positions require accuracy, fluency, subject-matter knowledge, and a breadth of language knowledge. The language specialist's work is complicated because (1) a phenomenon may exist in one language, but there may be no word-for-word equivalent for it in the other language, and (2) cultural differences that make ideas easily expressed in one language make them difficult to comprehend in the other language. In treating the content of a message, the language specialist must determine if the cultural flavor of a message should be retained or if it should be translated in the cultural setting of the intended audience.

The inherent difficulty of the subject matter is important because it often dictates the degree of knowledge and facility that language specialists must have not only with the language, but also with the subject matter involved. This element may also dictate the degree of research and learning ability that language specialists must possess in order to perform translations or interpretations of difficult subject matter. Subject matter may range in difficulty from translations of simple correspondence or interpretations of nontechnical instructions where only the general ideas of the contents need to be translated or interpreted, to very difficult technical, scientific, or other specialized material. The difficulty of the translation or interpretation ordinarily varies with the inherent difficulty of the original material. Only a broad guideline can be used to determine relative difficulty, that is, the kind and range of vocabulary language specialists must have, both in the original language and in the language(s) into which they translate or interpret, to make an intelligible translation or interpretation. For example, where a vocabulary required for translation is judged to be so peculiar to the subject that the expressions, terms, and symbols used are not usually found in the common information media and reference materials, such vocabulary may be considered to characterize very difficult subject matter.

The number of languages from or into which a language specialist is required to work involves many conditions that must be taken into consideration, such as the family relationship of languages. In many cases, languages in the same family are similar in structure, vocabulary, or phonetics. However, languages may be in the same family and be substantially different from each other. Where two languages require a completely different set of knowledge and skill, they have been placed in different groups of languages regardless of their family structure. The specific number of languages is not used to distinguish between different knowledge levels. However, the number of groups of languages with which the language specialist works on a regular and recurring basis is used to distinguish between different knowledge levels of Factor 1. The following groups of languages are considered to reflect different sets of knowledge and are the languages most commonly used by language specialists in the Federal Government.

American Indian Languages

  • Group A, Navajo
  • Group B, Muskogean
  • Group C, Iroquoian
  • Group D, Siouan
  • Far Eastern Languages

  • Group F, Chinese
  • Group G, Japanese
  • Group H, Vietnamese
  • Group I, Korean
  • Indo-European Languages

  • Group J, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
  • Group K, German, Yiddish, Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans
  • Group L, Greek
  • Group M, Armenian, Albanian
  • Group N, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French, Rumanian, Latin
  • Group O, Ukrainian, White Russian, Great Russian, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Bulgarian
  • Group P, Latvian, Lithuanian
  • Group Q, Hindu, Urdu
  • Group R, Persian
  • Afro-Asiatic Languages

  • Group S, Arabic, Hebrew, Amharic
  • Group T, Swahili
  • Group U, Hausa
  • Ural-Altaic Languages

  • Group V, Finnish, Estonian, Lapp
  • Group W, Hungarian
  • Group X, Turkish
  • Austro-Tai Languages

  • Group Y, Indonesian
  • Language specialists may be assigned other tasks that must be evaluated along with their translating or interpreting duties in order to properly grade their positions. Such duties range from processing forms, to giving advice on foreign affairs and customs. If more than one standard or guide is appropriate because of the mixture of the work performed, the grading criteria in each standard or guide should be reviewed, and the single set of criteria should be selected that produces the highest grade for the principal or paramount work of the position.

    Translator, GS-1040-05

    Serves as a trainee translator to translate into English material pertaining to the entitlement and prosecution of claims for benefits and eligibility to benefits from Russian, Polish, and Ukrainian. Receives on-the-job training designed to provide familiarization with the functions and operations of the organization and to provide experience in the translation of the above-mentioned languages.

    -- Translates material (such as birth and baptismal certificates, family bible records, employment records, marriage certificates, and death certificates) in summary form, extracting the information which is considered pertinent to the entitlement of a claim and converting dates in various calendars into the English equivalent.

    -- Translates uncomplicated letters concerning questions on benefits or entitlement to benefits.

    -- Occasionally translates simple material pertaining to the development of a claim or notice of the decision made with reference to a claim into Russian, Polish, or Ukrainian.

    -- Answers inquiries of technical personnel with reference to translations.

    Translator, GS-1040-07

    Translates material principally nontechnical, but sometimes technical in nature, conducts literature research and assists in developing glossaries from Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese.

    Produces full, idiomatic translations of material such as official correspondence and messages on naval subjects between U.S. Government officials and those of other governments and minutes of international naval conferences.

    Conducts sufficient literature research to become familiar with terminology, style, background information, and sources of terminological references.

    Assists in developing glossaries which make available to other translators the English equivalents for new terms established through research.

    Translator, GS-1040-09

    The language specialist translates and interprets for investigative cases conducted in the District Office and at immigration hearings. The cases involve subversive, criminal, narcotic, and fraudulent activities, political asylum and general investigations of illegal aliens or aliens lawfully entered who subsequently violate the immigration and nationality laws. Cases also involve the eligibility of alien applicants for benefits under the immigration and nationality laws.

    Duties

    -- Performs consecutive interpretations of judicial proceedings from and into Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese for immigration judges and aliens at inquiry hearings or for Federal court judges and aliens at prosecution hearings and arraignments.

    -- Interprets for investigators and immigration officers in all types of cases in which the agency takes action.

    -- Interprets for persons seeking citizenship or residence, or who are being questioned by naturalization or immigration examiners.

    -- Reviews newspapers and other publications and material printed in the language specified, making summary translations of items of interest to the service, such as recording names, titles, and activities of various community associations and names of officers and prominent members.

    -- Orally translates material at hearings and trials, such as evidence, foreign laws, medical findings, and indictments.

    Translator, GS-1040-09

    Duties

    Translates from Spanish, French, and Italian, material of a technical or nonrepetitive nature pertaining to the entitlement and prosecution of claims for benefits, performs similar translation for other components of the agency.

    -- Translates material such as affidavits; divorce decrees; proofs of contributions, adoption, or disability (medical reports); deeds; and bills of sale.

    -- Idiomatically translates sales contracts, agreements, court proceedings, laws, letters, and other material relating to technical issues such as coverage of wage questions, or transfer of business.

    -- Provides translations of articles appearing in foreign language publications and prepares reverse translations of agency forms and informational matters as required.

    -- Provides translations of foreign social insurance laws and systems in addition to providing opinions relative to the "educational institution status of foreign schools.

    -- Certifies whether the document appears to be genuine and unaltered and includes a description of any irregularities in the document.

    -- Assists in the preparation of glossaries and other linguistic aids for view by agency components to assist them in carrying out their functions.

    -- Occasionally interprets for foreign dignitaries or technical personnel on tours of the agency's operations or at meetings concerning aspects of the agency's programs.

    Translator, GS-1040-11

    Duties

    Provides quality control of the products of machine-processed Russian-English translations and provides manual and oral translations in Russian and French in such fields as military science, chemistry, nuclear science, and metallurgy.

    -- Performs post-editing of machine translations by:

    comparing them with the foreign documents and translating transliterated words into English using terms appropriate for the scientific or technical field involved;
    selecting the most appropriate term when the computer offers a choice of words for translation of a single Russian term. If none of the machine choices are applicable, selects and inserts a new term;
    revising the syntax and grammar of the machine output to insure readability;
    submitting to the lexicographer words and terms that should be included in the machine lexicon or that should be provided with different meanings.

    -- Manually translates books, periodicals, studies, and abstracts in the designated scientific subject areas.

    -- Performs linguistic and subject area research to keep abreast of constant changes in the scientific, technical, and research and development vocabularies of various languages.

    -- Evaluates translations which have been produced by commercial contractors for technical accuracy, grammar, and idiomatic use. Provides initial critique for determining acceptance or rejection of contracted work.

    Translator, GS-1040-11

    Duties

    Translates the most difficult technical and scientific material from Russian into idiomatic English for subject matter experts.

    -- Translates into English reports and articles in such fields as telecommunications, electronics, ballistics, cosmic radiation, biology, automotive engineering, chemistry, and physics.

    -- Scans a wide variety of publications for data which may have a bearing on the interests of engineers, subject matter specialists, and research analysts in the agency.

    -- Researches, analyzes, and critiques foreign language documents based on agency intelligence requirements. Translates and annotates titles of a large volume of foreign language documents and periodicals to be retained in agency files.

    -- Reviews and edits contract translations and validates and proposes work for contractors.

    -- Knowledge of Russian which provides the translator with a wide range of nonstandard terminology.

    -- Knowledge of English to use a wide range of both technical and nontechnical vocabulary to produce grammatically correct translations.

    -- Advanced skill in translating to render the most difficult scientific and technical material accurately and in a style appropriate to the subject matter.

    -- Knowledge of the fields translated into to provide a more accurate translation, to locate material pertinent to the interests of requestors, and to evaluate pertinency of documents to the missions of the organization. Skill in performing literature research to translate new technical and scientific terms.

    Translator, GS-1040-11

    Duties

    Translates Czech, Slovak, Polish, Ukrainian, and Russian material such as treaties, articles on trade, finance, mechanics, and medicine; correspondence; statutes; decisions of courts; briefs; and literature into English.

    Translates correspondence, articles for publication in newspapers and magazines, and speeches into another language.

    Performs research incident to making translations.

    As required, acts as interpreter for members of Congress and at Congressional hearings.

    Translator, GS-1040-12

    Duties

    Edits and reviews translations into English from one or more Romance languages.

    -- Edits and reviews translations from and into English at all levels of difficulty ranging from summaries of routine correspondence to highly complex and sensitive legal, economic, political, scientific, diplomatic, technical, or military documents.

    -- Compares international treaties and conventions, making a detailed examination of the foreign language texts, searching for discrepancies in meaning and substance, and recommending alternative wording to resolve differences.

    -- Serves as a reviewer at international conferences, assuming full responsibility for all texts translated into the language. The material includes minutes of meetings, resolutions, presentations, and final binding agreements. Subjects include fisheries, telecommunications, trade, armaments, health, forestry, human rights, and nuclear technology.

    -- Translates, when required, any document in the foreign language.

    -- In association with other employees, grades tests of prospective staff or contract translators.

    Translator, GS-1040-12

    Duties

    -- Translates patent applications, which include an unlimited number of subjects, from the Russian language. These applications contain a description of the invention, technical drawings, and cross references to related applications of the inventor.

    -- Translates claims for more current types of patents.

    -- Provides oral assistance to the examiners in translating foreign patents.

    -- Translates other material such as trademarks, articles for scientific publications, legal documents, books, and letters from foreign patent commissioners, and from citizens claiming to have a new invention.

    -- Performs necessary research to find correct terms and to understand the nature of the material translated.

    Translator, GS-1040-13

    Duties

    Interprets from and into Spanish and French, using one of two techniques, as warranted: formal conference consecutive interpretation formal conference simultaneous interpretation.

    -- Serves as the principal or sole interpreter for the President, Vice-President, Secretary of State, and other officials of the U.S. Government. Matters discussed cover an unlimited range of subjects such as strategic arms limitations, nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, mutual and balanced reduction of forces, U.S. bases overseas, the nuclear fuel cycle, space cooperation, trade, and fisheries.

    -- Serves as senior or chief interpreter at international conferences covering political, economic, social, technical, and scientific matters, leading and giving professional guidance to other interpreters assigned to the conference, in addition to performing the duties of a conference interpreter.

    -- Accompanies the President, his wife, the Vice-President, and other dignitaries on their overseas travels, being responsible for interpreting their official public statements at arrival, departure, and other ceremonies, at press conferences, as well as at private bilateral meetings. Performs the same functions for visiting Chiefs of State of government, including addresses to joint sessions of Congress and public forums.

    -- Serves as linguistic, cultural, information, and political adviser to the U.S. delegations at negotiations.

    -- As required, translates statements and speeches for distribution to the information media here and abroad.

    -- As required, serves as reviewer or translator from and into Spanish and French.

    -- Serves as consultant to governmental and private bodies on the organization of interpreter services, use of interpreting audio systems, and conduct of international conferences.

    -- Occasionally serves as escort interpreter for foreign leaders visiting the United States under the cultural, scientific, and technical exchange programs when the nature of the assignment requires an exceptionally skilled and experienced interpreter.

    Interpreter, GS-1040-13

    Duties

    Interprets from and into Spanish and French, using one of two techniques, as warranted: formal conference consecutive interpretation formal conference simultaneous interpretation.

    -- Serves as the principal or sole interpreter for the President, Vice-President, Secretary of State, and other officials of the U.S. Government. Matters discussed cover an unlimited range of subjects such as strategic arms limitations, nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, mutual and balanced reduction of forces, U.S. bases overseas, the nuclear fuel cycle, space cooperation, trade, and fisheries.

    -- Serves as senior or chief interpreter at international conferences covering political, economic, social, technical, and scientific matters, leading and giving professional guidance to other interpreters assigned to the conference, in addition to performing the duties of a conference interpreter.

    -- Accompanies the President, his wife, the Vice-President, and other dignitaries on their overseas travels, being responsible for interpreting their official public statements at arrival, departure, and other ceremonies, at press conferences, as well as at private bilateral meetings. Performs the same functions for visiting Chiefs of State of government, including addresses to joint sessions of Congress and public forums.

    -- Serves as linguistic, cultural, information, and political adviser to the U.S. delegations at negotiations.

    -- As required, translates statements and speeches for distribution to the information media here and abroad.

    -- As required, serves as reviewer or translator from and into Spanish and French.

    -- Serves as consultant to governmental and private bodies on the organization of interpreter services, use of interpreting audio systems, and conduct of international conferences.

    -- Occasionally serves as escort interpreter for foreign leaders visiting the United States under the cultural, scientific, and technical exchange programs when the nature of the assignment requires an exceptionally skilled and experienced interpreter.

    Individual Occupational Requirements

    Interpreters and translators must be fluent in at least two languages. Their educational backgrounds may vary widely, but many need a bachelor's degree. Many also complete job-specific training programs.

    Education and training. The educational backgrounds of interpreters and translators vary. Knowing at least two languages is essential. Although it is not necessary to have been raised bilingual to succeed, many interpreters and translators grew up speaking two languages.

    In high school, students can prepare for these careers by taking a broad range of courses that include English writing and comprehension, foreign languages, and basic computer proficiency. Other helpful pursuits include spending time abroad, engaging in direct contact with foreign cultures, and reading extensively on a variety of subjects in English and at least one other language.

    Beyond high school, there are many educational options. Although a bachelor's degree is often required for jobs, majoring in a language is not always necessary. An educational background in a particular field of study can provide a natural area of subject-matter expertise. However, specialized training in how to do the work is generally required. Formal programs in interpreting and translation are available at colleges nationwide and through nonuniversity training programs, conferences, and courses. Many people who work as conference interpreters or in more technical areas—such as localization, engineering, or finance—have master's degrees, while those working in the community as court or medical interpreters or translators are more likely to complete job-specific training programs.

    Other qualifications. Experience is an essential part of a successful career in either interpreting or translation. In fact, many agencies or companies use only the services of people who have worked in the field for 3 to 5 years or who have a degree in translation studies, or both.

    A good way for translators to learn firsthand about the profession is to start out working in-house for a translation company; however, such jobs are not very numerous. People seeking to enter interpreter or translator jobs should begin by getting experience whatever way possible—even if it means doing informal or volunteer work.

    Volunteer opportunities are available through community organizations, hospitals, and sporting events, such as marathons, that involve international competitors. The American Translators Association works with the Red Cross to provide volunteer interpreters in crisis situations. Any translation can be used as an example for potential clients, even translation done as practice.

    Paid or unpaid internships and apprenticeships are other ways for interpreters and translators to get started. Escort interpreting may offer an opportunity for inexperienced candidates to work alongside a more seasoned interpreter. Interpreters might also find it easier to break into areas with particularly high demand for language services, such as court or medical interpreting.

    Whatever path of entry they pursue, new interpreters and translators should establish mentoring relationships to build their skills, confidence, and professional network. Mentoring may be formal, such as through a professional association, or informal with a coworker or an acquaintance who has experience as an interpreter or translator. Both the American Translators Association and the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf offer formal mentoring programs.

    Translators working in localization need a solid grasp of the languages to be translated, a thorough understanding of technical concepts and vocabulary, and a high degree of knowledge about the intended target audience or users of the product. Because software often is involved, it is not uncommon for people who work in this area of translation to have a strong background in computer science or to have computer-related work experience.

    Self-employed and freelance interpreters and translators need general business skills to successfully manage their finances and careers. They must set prices for their work, bill customers, keep financial records, and market their services to attract new business and build their client base.

    Certification and advancement. There is currently no universal form of certification required of interpreters and translators in the United States. However there are a variety of different tests that workers can take to demonstrate proficiency, which may be helpful in gaining employment. For example, the American Translators Association provides certification in 24 language combinations involving English for its members.

    Federal courts have certification for Spanish, Navajo, and Haitian Creole interpreters, and many State and municipal courts offer their own forms of certification. The National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators also offers certification for court interpreting.

    The U.S. Department of State has a three-test series for prospective interpreters—one test in simple consecutive interpreting (for escort work), another in simultaneous interpreting (for court or seminar work), and a third in conference-level interpreting (for international conferences)—as well as a test for prospective translators. These tests are not considered a credential, but successful completion indicates that a person has a significant level of skill in the field. Additionally, the International Association of Conference Interpreters offers certification for conference interpreters

    The National Association of the Deaf and the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) jointly offer certification for general sign interpreters. In addition, the registry offers specialty tests in legal interpreting, speech reading, and deaf-to-deaf interpreting—which includes interpreting among deaf speakers with different native languages and from ASL to tactile signing.

    Once interpreters and translators have gained sufficient experience, they may then move up to more difficult or prestigious assignments, may seek certification, may be given editorial responsibility, or may eventually manage or start a translation agency.

    Many self-employed interpreters and translators start businesses by submitting resumes and samples to many different translation and interpreting agencies and then wait to be contacted when an agency matches their skills with a job. Work is often acquired by word of mouth or through referrals from existing clients.

    Job Outlook

    Interpreters and translators can expect much faster than average employment growth. Job prospects vary by specialty and language.

    Employment change. Employment of interpreters and translators is projected to increase 22 percent over the 2008–18 decade, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. Higher demand for interpreters and translators results directly from the broadening of international ties and the large increases in the number of non-English speaking people in the United States. Both of these trends are expected to continue throughout the projections period, contributing to relatively rapid growth in the number of jobs for interpreters and translators across all industries in the economy.

    Demand will remain strong for translators of frequently translated languages, such as Portuguese, French, Italian, German, and Spanish. Demand should also be strong for translators of Arabic and other Middle Eastern languages and for the principal East Asian languages—Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Demand for American Sign Language interpreters will grow rapidly, driven by the increasing use of video relay services, which allow individuals to conduct video calls using a sign language interpreter over an Internet connection.

    Technology has made the work of interpreters and translators easier. However, technology is not likely to have a negative impact on employment of interpreters and translators because such innovations are incapable of producing work comparable with work produced by these professionals.

    Job prospects. Urban areas, especially Washington, DC, New York, and cities in California, provide the largest numbers of employment possibilities, especially for interpreters; however, as the immigrant population spreads into more rural areas, jobs in smaller communities will become more widely available.

    Job prospects for interpreters and translators vary by specialty and language. For example, interpreters and translators of Spanish should have good job opportunities because of expected increases in the Hispanic population in the United States. Demand is expected to be strong for interpreters and translators specializing in healthcare and law because it is critical that information be fully understood among all parties in these areas. Additionally, there should be demand for specialists in localization, driven by the globalization of business and the expansion of the Internet; however, demand may be dampened somewhat by outsourcing of localization work to other countries. Given the shortage of interpreters and translators meeting the desired skill level of employers, interpreters for the deaf will continue to have favorable employment prospects. On the other hand, competition can be expected for both conference interpreter and literary translator positions because of the small number of job opportunities in these specialties.

    Earnings

    Wage and salary interpreters and translators had median annual wages of $38,850 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $28,940 and $52,240. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,170, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $69,190. Individuals classified as language specialists in the Federal Government earned an average of $79,865 annually in March 2009.

    Earnings depend on language, subject matter, skill, experience, education, certification, and type of employer, and salaries of interpreters and translators can vary widely. Interpreters and translators who know languages for which there is a greater demand, or which relatively few people can translate, often have higher earnings, as do those who perform services requiring a high level of skill, such as conference interpreters.

    For those who are not salaried, earnings typically fluctuate, depending on the availability of work. Freelance interpreters usually earn an hourly rate, whereas translators who freelance typically earn a rate per word or per hour.

    Additional Sources

    Organizations dedicated to these professions can provide valuable advice and guidance to people interested in learning more about interpreting and translation. The language services division of local hospitals or courthouses also may have information about available opportunities.

    For general career information, contact:

    • American Translators Association, 225 Reinekers Ln., Suite 590, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.atanet.org

    For more detailed information by specialty, contact the association affiliated with the subject area in question. See, for example, the following:

    • American Literary Translators Association, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Rd., Mail Station JO51, Richardson, TX 75080-3021. Internet: http://www.utdallas.edu/alta
    • International Medical Interpreters Association, 800 Washington Street, Box 271, Boston, MA 02111-1845. Internet: http://www.imiaweb.org
    • Localization Industry Standards Association, Domaine en Prael, CH-1323 Romainmôtier, Switzerland. Internet: http://www.lisa.org
    • National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Translators, 1707 L St. NW., Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036. Internet: http://www.najit.org
    • National Council on Interpreting in Health Care, 5505 Connecticut Ave. NW., Suite 119, Washington, DC 20015. Internet: http://www.ncihc.org
    • Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, 333 Commerce St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.rid.org

    For information about testing to become a contract interpreter or translator with the U.S. State Department, contact:

    Information on obtaining Language Specialist positions with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management through USAJOBS, the Federal Government's official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724–1850 or  (703) 724–1850  or TDD (978) 461–8404 and   (978) 461–8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. For advice on how to find and apply for Federal jobs, download the Insider's Guide to the Federal Hiring Process” online here.

    Source: OPM's Position Classification Standards for White Collar Work

    Last Modified Date: March 4, 2011

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