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Medical Officers
Significant Points
  • Many physicians and surgeons work long, irregular hours.
  • Acceptance to medical school is highly competitive.
  • Formal education and training requirements—typically 4 years of undergraduate school, 4 years of medical school, and 3 to 8 years of internship and residency—are among the most demanding of any occupation, but earnings are among the highest.
  • Job opportunities should be very good, particularly in rural and low-income areas.
Nature of the Work

Physicians and surgeons diagnose illnesses and prescribe and administer treatment for people suffering from injury or disease. Physicians examine patients, obtain medical histories, and order, perform, and interpret diagnostic tests. They counsel patients on diet, hygiene, and preventive healthcare.

There are two types of physicians: M.D. (Medical Doctor) and D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine). M.D.s also are known as allopathic physicians. While both M.D.s and D.O.s may use all accepted methods of treatment, including drugs and surgery, D.O.s place special emphasis on the body's musculoskeletal system, preventive medicine, and holistic patient care. D.O.s are most likely to be primary care specialists although they can be found in all specialties. About half of D.O.s practice general or family medicine, general internal medicine, or general pediatrics.

Physicians work in one or more of several specialties, including, but not limited to, anesthesiology, family and general medicine, general internal medicine, general pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and surgery.

Anesthesiologists focus on the care of surgical patients and pain relief. Like other physicians, they evaluate and treat patients and direct the efforts of their staffs. Through continual monitoring and assessment, these critical care specialists are responsible for maintenance of the patient's vital life functions—heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, breathing—during surgery. They also work outside of the operating room, providing pain relief in the intensive care unit, during labor and delivery, and for those who suffer from chronic pain. Anesthesiologists confer with other physicians and surgeons about appropriate treatments and procedures before, during, and after operations.

Family and general physicians often provide the first point of contact for people seeking healthcare, by acting as the traditional family physician. They assess and treat a wide range of conditions, from sinus and respiratory infections to broken bones. Family and general physician typically have a base of regular, long-term patients. These doctors refer patients with more serious conditions to specialists or other healthcare facilities for more intensive care.

General internists diagnose and provide nonsurgical treatment for a wide range of problems that affect internal organ systems, such as the stomach, kidneys, liver, and digestive tract. Internists use a variety of diagnostic techniques to treat patients through medication or hospitalization. Like general practitioners, general internists commonly act as primary care specialists. They treat patients referred from other specialists and, in turn, they refer patients to other specialists when more complex care is required.

General pediatricians care for the health of infants, children, teenagers, and young adults. They specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of ailments specific to young people and track patients' growth to adulthood. Like most physicians, pediatricians work with different healthcare workers, such as nurses and other physicians, to assess and treat children with various ailments. Most of the work of pediatricians involves treating day-to-day illnesses—minor injuries, infectious diseases, and immunizations—that are common to children, much as a general practitioner treats adults. Some pediatricians specialize in pediatric surgery or serious medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders or serious chronic ailments.

Obstetricians and gynecologists (OB/GYNs) specialize in women's health. They are responsible for women's general medical care, and they also provide care related to pregnancy and the reproductive system. Like general practitioners, OB/GYNs attempt to prevent, diagnose, and treat general health problems, but they focus on ailments specific to the female anatomy, such as cancers of the breast or cervix, urinary tract and pelvic disorders, and hormonal disorders. OB/GYNs also specialize in childbirth, which includes treating and counseling women throughout their pregnancy, from giving prenatal diagnoses to assisting with delivery and providing postpartum care.

Psychiatrists are the primary mental healthcaregivers. They assess and treat mental illnesses through a combination of psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, hospitalization, and medication. Psychotherapy involves regular discussions with patients about their problems; the psychiatrist helps them find solutions through changes in their behavioral patterns, the exploration of their past experiences, or group and family therapy sessions. Psychoanalysis involves long-term psychotherapy and counseling for patients. In many cases, medications are administered to correct chemical imbalances that cause emotional problems.

Surgeons specialize in the treatment of injury, disease, and deformity through operations. Using a variety of instruments, and with patients under anesthesia, a surgeon corrects physical deformities, repairs bone and tissue after injuries, or performs preventive surgeries on patients with debilitating diseases or disorders. Although a large number perform general surgery, many surgeons choose to specialize in a specific area. One of the most prevalent specialties is orthopedic surgery: the treatment of the musculoskeletal system. Others include neurological surgery (treatment of the brain and nervous system), cardiovascular surgery, otolaryngology (treatment of the ear, nose, and throat), and plastic or reconstructive surgery. Like other physicians, surgeons also examine patients, perform and interpret diagnostic tests, and counsel patients on preventive healthcare.

Other physicians and surgeons work in a number of other medical and surgical specialists, including allergists, cardiologists, dermatologists, emergency physicians, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, pathologists, and radiologists.

Work environment. Many physicians—primarily general and family practitioners, general internists, pediatricians, OB/GYNs, and psychiatrists—work in small private offices or clinics, often assisted by a small staff of nurses and other administrative personnel. Increasingly, physicians are practicing in groups or healthcare organizations that provide backup coverage and allow for more time off. Physicians in a group practice or healthcare organization often work as part of a team that coordinates care for a number of patients; they are less independent than the solo practitioners of the past. Surgeons and anesthesiologists usually work in well-lighted, sterile environments while performing surgery and often stand for long periods. Most work in hospitals or in surgical outpatient centers.

Many physicians and surgeons work long, irregular hours. In 2008, 43 percent of all physicians and surgeons worked 50 or more hours a week. Nine percent of all physicians and surgeons worked part-time. Physicians and surgeons travel between office and hospital to care for their patients. While on call, a physician will deal with many patients' concerns over the phone and make emergency visits to hospitals or nursing homes.

Medical Officer (Disability Evaluation), GS-0602-12

Nature, range, and complexity of work

Medical Officers GS-12 are normally at the local adjudication program level. They are typically characterized by responsibility for applying professional medical knowledge in the examination and evaluation of disability claims cases representing the full range of types of claims and of types of medical and other problems. They serve as signatory medical members of a formally constituted Board and/or rating staff and are jointly responsible with other nonmedical members for conclusions reached in the rating decisions. They develop cases, worksheets, analytical discussions and make decisions in terms of issues and facts involved, and make logical application of regulations, precedents, and other instructions.

In making decisions, a medical officer at this level resolves the medical and legal questions at issue, and either signs the decisions, issues instructions concerning further development, or writes a dissenting opinion.

In a very few instances, the Rating members may recommend referral of cases to Headquarters for advisory opinions concerning the granting of benefits sought. These might, for example, include cases where members consider an evaluation under the schedule to be inadequate or excessive, or monthly compensation cases involving severe disability which the board considers total, but for which current procedure does not authorize a total rating. When the members in examining a case previously rated by a different board jurisdiction determine that a clear and unmistakable error exists in the rating previously assigned, the case must be reviewed and approved by the head or assistant head of the local adjudication program.

Contacts of Medical Officers GS-12 are primarily with others engaged in individually analyzing and developing claims cases and making rating decisions. As requested, they advise other rating specialists (who are not medical officers) on medical questions. Advice may cover such matters as: interpretations of medical evidence in the light of VA regulations, policies, and precedents; the type of medical examinations needed to develop the evidence under the particular facts of the case in question; questions on impairment of functions of the mind or of parts of the human body; and questions as to whether disabilities involved are shown to be static, or are likely to improve. As necessary, medical officers request advice from nonmedical rating specialists on the nonmedical matters involved in claims.

Medical officers may occasionally contact agency clinical medical personnel at the local program level to discuss cases with them. Such discussion or consultation is essentially a discussion between medical peers. In addition, medical members at this level may participate in hearings on cases by interrogating claimants and their witnesses on the medical aspects of the cases. Over a period of time, the work will involve contacts with physicians who have specialized in all of the various fields of medicine, some of whom are widely renowned in their field.

Medical officers, whether serving on a constituted Board or as a member of rating staff, apply their medical knowledge and experience in making determinations concerning a wide variety of medical issues which may be involved in cases. They must also, in making their determinations, apply a wide variety of laws, regulations, and issuances, and, in some cases, consider the occupational aspects of cases. Evaluations are made within a framework of guides which include a wide variety of laws, regulations, instructions, etc., (including the Schedule for Rating Disabilities) relating to claims.

Level of responsibility

Signatory responsibility is characteristic of medical officers whether they serve as a member of a constituted Board or in a rating staff. Their decisions are generally accepted as conclusive and are made in accordance with established medical knowledge and agency guidelines and precedents. Where incumbents of positions at this level are regularly assigned to a constituted Board, the major part of their time is devoted to the deliberative aspects and extensive documentation of cases. The head of the local adjudication program conducts staff meetings to discuss new laws, regulations, and instructions, and also to discuss controversial problems in connection with application of regulations, policies, and procedures to assure consistency of thinking in their interpretation and application.

Medical Officer (Disability Evaluation), GS-0602-14

Medical Officer (Disability Evaluation) GS-14 positions are typically located at the national level, and are characterized by responsibility for examining and evaluating disability claims which have been referred from field Rating Boards for advice or rulings or which have reached the ultimate level of appeal. In either situation the disability claims cases require a high degree of medical knowledge and sound professional judgment. The recommendations and the medical judgments made may materially affect agency-wide medical policy concerning the adjudication of veterans benefits claims.

Nature, range, and complexity of work

Some positions involve responsibility for examining cases referred from field Rating Boards, either: (1) for advice on exceptionally complex medical issues; (2) because the case involves a potential reversal of a previous decision of another Rating Board concerning service-connection of the disability; or (3) because the Rating Board believes the case warrants a departure from established benefit schedules.

Other positions involve thoroughly examining and evaluating disability claims cases which have reached the ultimate level of appeal.

In either case, incumbents must analyze cases involving highly complex or controversial medical issues, determine the sufficiency of medical evidence, evaluate its significance in terms of applicable provisions of law and policy relating to claims, and develop a recommended decision or ruling. Also, in either case, the disability claims cases involve medical issues and theories which are similar (in nature, complexity and significance to agency policy) to those described at the GS-15 level.

Medical officers who examine cases referred from field Rating Boards must deal with the gamut of medical claims that may arise under the laws and programs pertaining to veterans benefits.

Positions which are concerned with the analysis of appeals involve a broad range of cases in a highly specialized medical field, since they are usually identified with the work of one Board Section, and the Board Sections tend to specialize by medical specialty or by type of claim. However, such specialization is offset by the complexity inherent in claims which are controversial and/or which involve complex issues that they have reached the ultimate appellate level.

Significant person-to-person contacts may be involved in representing the headquarters office in dealing with field offices, representatives of veterans organizations, and sometimes with members of Congress.

Level of responsibility

Positions at this level require a very high degree of medical knowledge in order to render sound professional judgments on cases of the complexity dealt with. In addition, while recommendations of incumbents do not represent final agency decisions, they are accorded very substantial weight in final rulings or decisions which commonly represent policy determinations. For example, recommendations may serve to affect agency-wide policy concerning the schedules of disability compensation to be applied to various types of physical disabilities, or they may involve policy as to the acceptance of new theories of relationships between disease entities, or concerning the symptomology of diseases.

Medical Officer (Disability Evaluation), GS-0602-15

GS-15 Medical Officers (Disability Evaluation) typically serve as full members of boards which have final responsibility for decisions on disability claim appeals, or responsibility for establishing appellate or agency-wide medical policy concerning the adjudication of veterans benefits claims. Consequently, the advice and decisions of incumbents of positions at this level have great significance within the total disability evaluation program of the agency, and serve as guides and precedents for the adjudication of claims in the Board of Veterans Appeals or by regional offices throughout the nation.

GS-15 incumbents are expected to have authoritative knowledge of their specialty area of medicine, general practice or other specialization, and of the disability evaluation program of the agency. They are recognized for, and exercise a high degree of professional leadership in their specialty area (characterized by a penetrating understanding of medicine in other specialties). Such leadership includes the application of expert medical knowledge to decisions or to formulate abstractions as medical adaptations necessary under Veterans Administration law on matter which establish program precedents or which become standards, policies and guides in disability evaluation matters.

Typical examples of assignments at the GS-15 level include the following:

A. Serving as a physician member of a Board Section of the Board of Veterans Appeals.

(Note: The Board of Veterans Appeals is organized into a number of "Board Sections," each of which is responsible for claims which fall within a certain specialty area. With respect to claims under its purview, the Board Section's decision represents final Board action.)

Nature, range, and complexity of work

Incumbents of these positions examine and analyze cases developed by the staff of the Board Section, with a major portion of their time being devoted to consideration of, and broad deliberation on, cases presenting novel and exceptionally difficult medical aspects. Then, in conjunction with two other members who are not physicians, they reach final decisions on issues and motions involved in appeals to the Administrator from adverse decisions of offices of original adjudicative jurisdiction.

The physician member serves as a consultant to other members in evaluating and correlating conflicting medical evidence for the purpose of arriving at a sound medical conclusion on novel and exceptionally difficult cases. For example, there may be new theories of the relationship between disease entities hitherto considered entirely separate and unrelated. These theories, when and if proved and accepted by the medical profession as a whole, may have the affect of altering the basis for determining service-connection of medical conditions. Since service-connection is a basic requisite for many benefits, such changes in accepted theories may have a vital impact on thousands of veterans. The physician member of the board is responsible, on the basis of his authoritative and intensive knowledge of a specialty area, for advising the Board as to when such theories have been accepted as medical facts and when such theories have not been so accepted. To make such determinations the physician member must keep abreast of the latest developments reported in medical literature and be able to apply an authoritative, critical judgment to developments reported.

Guides include a variety of laws, regulations, and instructions (including the Schedule for Rating Disabilities) relating to claims.

The Board may conduct hearings on appeals, involving important contacts with the veteran and witnesses for the veteran including national representatives of the various veteran's organizations, nationally recognized medical specialists, and others. In such hearings, the physician member has a particular responsibility for eliciting complete information concerning medical aspects of the case, and for interpreting this information to other Board members.

Level of responsibility

The three members of the Board Section have equal voice in decisions on the appeals before the Section. Most appeals pertain to veterans benefits claims, concerning which the Board Section's decision cannot be set aside by Federal or State Courts. Claims in relation to disability insurance arise out of the policyholder's right under his individual contract, and are, therefore, subject to suit in the Federal courts. However, the Board Section's decisions on such claims are final within the agency.

Decisions by the Board on individual cases do not establish precedents as such for the total program but often have a profound effect on future field adjudications involving similar factual situations.

B. Serving as a signatory member of the Disability Policy Board of the Veterans Administration.

Nature, range, and complexity of work

Such a position involves serving as a full member in all of the Disability Policy Board functions. These functions include: (1) preparation of inclusions, changes, and readjustments to the Schedule for Rating Disabilities; (2) conduct of study projects which may have a significant impact on the future scope of the compensation and pension program (e.g., intensive studies on a national scale to provide a schedule of supplementary awards for social unadaptability, loss of physical integrity, and shortened life expectancy resulting from a service-connected disability); (3) development of administrative issuances controlling the application of the rating schedule and fundamental rating policy; (4) formulation of rating decisions in cases where deviations are made from the schedule (extra-scheduler cases); (5) review, on request of program officials, of decisions on cases involving highly controversial questions of policy or fact and law; and (6) consultative service on medical questions to program officials, members of the Board of Veterans Appeals, the General Counsel, and others.

Recommendations for revisions to the Schedule involve considering the medical advances in specialized fields of medicine, reviewing recommendations made by outstanding medical specialists employed as consultants by the Veterans Administration, and weighing such information in the light of incumbent's knowledge of the broad reaches of medicine and the disability evaluation program. Such recommendations must be medically sound and administratively feasible. To validate such recommendations, the medical member must (a) analyze medical theories and established concepts in relation to medical adaptations necessary under Veterans Administration law and policy, or (b) analyze reports on numerous cases of the types of diseases to establish the relationships of medical factors, such as categories, symptoms, residuals, effects on social and industrial adaptability, resulting impairments of earning abilities, etc. The professional recommendation by a medical officer at this level carries great weight with the Board in making the final policy decisions as to its acceptance, and the incumbent himself is a full voting member of the Board in the final decision.

Person-to-person work contacts are primarily for the purpose of securing viewpoints and general or specialized consultation in connection with program projects or proposed changes in the Schedule from other medical officers who are employed within the agency or on a consultant basis, or from outside government and private agencies (such as insurance companies, etc.). Medical Officers GS-15 also furnish guidance within the agency and to the Department of Defense on interpretation of the Rating Schedule. The Rating Schedule is not only used by the Veterans Administration but also by the Department of Defense in connection with disability retirements from all branches of the Armed Services.

Incumbents may also on occasion give information concerning the Schedule and the program to interested representatives of State Commissions and foreign governments.

Level of responsibility

Members of the Disability Policy Board function under the administrative direction of the Board Chairman who is responsible for providing leadership and assigning or authorizing the undertaking of projects by Board members. The medical knowledge and experience brought to bear by the medical officer member has a significant effect on the decisions made by the Board. By reason of the stature acquired by the Board in the field of rating and related matters, its opinions and determinations are generally accepted within the agency as authoritative.

Study projects undertaken by Disability Policy Board members have major impact on the future scope of the compensation and pension program. Projects in relation to changes in the Schedule for Rating Disabilities have a major impact, not only within the agency where the Schedule governs the determinations of all original and appellate rating jurisdictions, but also throughout the military services where the Schedule is also applied by disability retirement boards for military personnel. The Board's "extra-scheduler" decisions are made on delegation of authority from the Administrator.

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

The common path to practicing as a physician requires 8 years of education beyond high school and 3 to 8 additional years of internship and residency. All States, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories license physicians.

Education and training. Formal education and training requirements for physicians are among the most demanding of any occupation—4 years of undergraduate school, 4 years of medical school, and 3 to 8 years of internship and residency, depending on the specialty selected. A few medical schools offer combined undergraduate and medical school programs that last 6 or 7 years rather than the customary 8 years.

Premedical students must complete undergraduate work in physics, biology, mathematics, English, and inorganic and organic chemistry. Students also take courses in the humanities and the social sciences. Some students volunteer at local hospitals or clinics to gain practical experience in the health professions.

The minimum educational requirement for entry into medical school is 3 years of college; most applicants, however, have at least a bachelor's degree, and many have advanced degrees. In 2008, there were 129 medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME). The LCME is the national accrediting body for M.D. medical education programs. The American Osteopathic Association accredits schools that award a D.O. degree; there were 25 schools accredited in 31 locations in 2008.

Acceptance to medical school is highly competitive. Most applicants must submit transcripts, scores from the Medical College Admission Test, and letters of recommendation. Schools also consider an applicant's character, personality, leadership qualities, and participation in extracurricular activities. Most schools require an interview with members of the admissions committee.

Students spend most of the first 2 years of medical school in laboratories and classrooms, taking courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, psychology, microbiology, pathology, medical ethics, and laws governing medicine. They also learn to take medical histories, examine patients, and diagnose illnesses. During their last 2 years, students work with patients under the supervision of experienced physicians in hospitals and clinics, learning acute, chronic, preventive, and rehabilitative care. Through rotations in internal medicine, family practice, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery, they gain experience in the diagnosis and treatment of illness.

Following medical school, almost all M.D.s enter a residency—graduate medical education in a specialty that takes the form of paid on-the-job training, usually in a hospital. Most D.O.s serve a 12-month rotating internship after graduation and before entering a residency, which may last 2 to 6 years.

A physician's training is costly. According to the Association of American Medical Colleges, in 2007 85 percent of public medical school graduates and 86 percent of private medical school graduates were in debt for educational expenses.

Licensure and certification. To practice medicine as a physician, all States, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories require licensing. All physicians and surgeons practicing in the United States must pass the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) or, for osteopathic physicians, the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Exam (COMLEX). To be eligible to take the USMLE or COMLEX, physicians must graduate from an accredited medical school. Although physicians licensed in one State usually can get a license to practice in another without further examination, some States limit reciprocity. Graduates of foreign medical schools generally can qualify for licensure after passing an examination and completing a U.S. residency. For specific information on licensing in a given State, contact that State’s medical board.

M.D.s and D.O.s seeking board certification in a specialty may spend up to 7 years in residency training, depending on the specialty. A final examination immediately after residency or after 1 or 2 years of practice is also necessary for certification by a member board of the American Board of Medical Specialists (ABMS) or the American Osteopathic Association (AOA). The ABMS represents 24 boards related to medical specialties ranging from allergy and immunology to urology. The AOA has approved 18 specialty boards, ranging from anesthesiology to surgery. For certification in a subspecialty, physicians usually need another 1 to 2 years of residency.

Other qualifications. People who wish to become physicians must have a desire to serve patients, be self-motivated, and be able to survive the pressures and long hours of medical education and practice. Physicians also must have a good bedside manner, emotional stability, and the ability to make decisions in emergencies. Prospective physicians must be willing to study throughout their career to keep up with medical advances.

Advancement. Some physicians and surgeons advance by gaining expertise in specialties and subspecialties and by developing a reputation for excellence among their peers and patients. Physicians and surgeons may also start their own practice or join a group practice. Others teach residents and other new doctors, and some advance to supervisory and managerial roles in hospitals, clinics, and other settings.

Job Outlook

Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations. Job opportunities should be very good, particularly in rural and low-income areas.

Employment change. Employment of physicians and surgeons is projected to grow 22 percent from 2008 to 2018, much faster than the average for all occupations. Job growth will occur because of continued expansion of healthcare-related industries. The growing and aging population will drive overall growth in the demand for physician services, as consumers continue to demand high levels of care using the latest technologies, diagnostic tests, and therapies. Many medical schools are increasing their enrollments based on perceived new demand for physicians.

Despite growing demand for physicians and surgeons, some factors will temper growth. For example, new technologies allow physicians to be more productive. This means physicians can diagnose and treat more patients in the same amount of time. The rising cost of healthcare can dramatically affect demand for physicians’ services. Physician assistants and nurse practitioners, who can perform many of the routine duties of physicians at a fraction of the cost, may be increasingly used. Furthermore, demand for physicians' services is highly sensitive to changes in healthcare reimbursement policies. If changes to health coverage result in higher out-of-pocket costs for consumers, they may demand fewer physician services.

Job prospects. Opportunities for individuals interested in becoming physicians and surgeons are expected to be very good. In addition to job openings from employment growth, openings will result from the need to replace the relatively high number of physicians and surgeons expected to retire over the 2008-18 decade.

Job prospects should be particularly good for physicians willing to practice in rural and low-income areas because these medically underserved areas typically have difficulty attracting these workers. Job prospects will also be especially good for physicians in specialties that afflict the rapidly growing elderly population. Examples of such specialties are cardiology and radiology because the risks for heart disease and cancer increase as people age.


Earnings of physicians and surgeons are among the highest of any occupation. According to the Medical Group Management Association's Physician Compensation and Production Survey, median total compensation for physicians varied by their type of practice. In 2008, physicians practicing primary care had total median annual compensation of $186,044, and physicians practicing in medical specialties earned total median annual compensation of $339,738.

Self-employed physicians—those who own or are part owners of their medical practice—generally have higher median incomes than salaried physicians. Earnings vary according to number of years in practice, geographic region, hours worked, skill, personality, and professional reputation. Self-employed physicians and surgeons must provide for their own health insurance and retirement.

Sources of Additional Information

For a list of medical schools and residency programs, as well as general information on premedical education, financial aid, and medicine as a career contact:

  • Association of American Medical Colleges, Section for Student Services, 2450 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20037. Internet:

For information on licensing, contact:

  • Federation of State Medical Boards, P.O. Box 619850 Dallas, TX 75261-9850. Internet:

For general information on physicians, contact:

For information about various medical specialties, contact:

  • American Academy of Family Physicians, Resident Student Activities Department, P.O. Box 11210, Shawnee Mission, KS 66207-1210. Internet:
  • American Board of Medical Specialties, 222 N. LaSalle St., Suite 1500, Chicago, IL 60601. Internet:
  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, P.O. Box 96920, Washington, DC 20090. Internet:
  • American College of Surgeons, Division of Education, 633 North Saint Clair St., Chicago, IL 60611. Internet:
  • American Psychiatric Association, 1000 Wilson Blvd., Suite 1825, Arlington, VA 22209. Internet:
  • American Society of Anesthesiologists, 520 N. Northwest Hwy., Park Ridge, IL 60068. Internet:

Information on Federal scholarships and loans is available from the directors of student financial aid at schools of medicine. Information on licensing is available from State boards of examiners.

Information on obtaining Medical Officer positions with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management through USAJOBS, the Federal Government's official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724–1850 or  (703) 724–1850  or TDD (978) 461–8404 and   (978) 461–8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. For advice on how to find and apply for Federal jobs, download the Insider's Guide to the Federal Hiring Process” online here.


  • Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition; and
  • Office of Personnel Management, Position Classification Standards.

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