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Chaplains

Significant Points

Chaplains are concerned essentially with providing for the religious needs of the population served, and with serving as spiritual counselors in moral and religious problems. Most chaplains carry out this work in a direct service capacity by providing a religious ministry for patients or inmates confined in Government institutions. Some chaplain positions also include, as a sole or partial responsibility, one or more of the following non-direct services functions: staff functions of administration; or special functions of training or research.

Although this series covers all chaplain positions, this standard is concerned with the direct services types of chaplain positions, i.e., those in which the primary function is to directly carry out, or to directly supervise programs for carrying out, a religious ministry for patients or inmates.

Nature of the Work

The major functional areas which comprise the total range of chaplaincy work in positions covered by this series are: (1) the religious ministry; (2) administration; (3) training; and (4) research.

    1. The religious ministry characterizes, and for the most part constitutes, the direct services chaplaincy program. Basically, for all such programs for whatever religious faith, it consists of providing: (a) religious services through means of a worship ministry and religious instruction; and (b) a pastoral ministry encompassing pastoral care for patients and inmates, and the maintenance of working relationships with staff and contacts with the community.

      (a) Religious services

        (1) Worship ministry - This includes the priestly functions, such as conducting religious services and worship; establishing periods for public worship, seasonal and occasional services, and individual devotions; administering ordinances, rites or sacraments; preparing and delivering sermons; arranging for the atmosphere and symbolism of worship; and conducting funeral services when needed.

        (2) Religious instruction - This is provided patients or inmates by various means, such as individual or group discussions, instructional classes, forums, broadcasts, films, and tutoring for courses completed by correspondence. The scope of this function may be limited to discussions with individuals and distribution of appropriate literature; or it may be further extended and developed into a full fledged educational program geared to an intensive overall care and treatment program of the institution; such a program may involve the conduct of Bible classes and regular group discussions, which can have considerable therapeutic value. Visiting seminarians or local clergy often assist in the conduct of these classes.

      (b) Pastoral ministry

        (1) Pastoral care - This is the primary means by which the chaplain carries out his essential mission of serving as spiritual advisor to patients or inmates. It involves personal visits with them and is carried on in the course of regular routine rounds through the units of the institution, by special visits, and interviews, or on the basis of requests and referral. It may involve friendly visitation, ritual and bedside administration of sacraments, or pastoral counseling. A pastoral interview is normally required in the case of the newly admitted patient or inmate, to ascertain his religious background, evaluate his religious needs, and advise of the availability of the chaplain. Typically, it is offered in the case of: those critically ill; those scheduled for surgery; those needing adjustment to "bad news" (such as death in the family); those approaching death; those undergoing treatment or recovery; and those otherwise desiring it.

        Pastoral care involves serving as spiritual counselor to patients or inmates and their families on ethical and moral matters, including problems of conscience and family and marital differences. It includes offering spiritual consolation, support and guidance to those looking to solution of personal problems in adjustment to their illness or confinement. Patients often are beset with fears when facing surgery; they often question the meaning of life when confronted with the reality of illness, pain, permanent disfigurement, crippling, or death. Patients with long-term illnesses especially need aid in developing and maintaining patience, perseverance, and determination. Mental patients are usually deeply troubled people overwhelmed by their obsessions, anxieties, and fears. Many inmates of training schools, reformatories, correctional and penal institutions have strong aggressions against society; because they often lack ethical or moral standards, they need to be infused with new life values. Whatever the institution, the chaplain seeks to contribute his religious resources toward bringing these people inner security, purpose, and motivation; he encourages them toward a wholesome outlook by translating spiritual values into everyday living; and he encourages them to work with the overall treatment plan.

        (2) Maintaining working relationships with staff - This is an extension of the pastoral care responsibility. It includes contacts, in varying degrees, with members of the other staff disciplines, such as medical officer, psychologist, nurse, social worker, therapist, parole officer, or others involved, for exchange of information or discussion on matters of mutual concern about the welfare and treatment of the patient or inmate. The scope of this function may range from limited contact, to full expression of an integrated "team" concept through equal participation with a multi-professional staff in conferences, as appropriate, on the evaluation, treatment, and care of the patient or inmate. (Note: In the penal and correctional institution this kind of "team" is usually referred to as the "classification committee." However, the term "treatment team" is more commonly used in other institutions. For convenience in this standard the latter term is used.)

        (3) Community contacts - As another extension of the pastoral care program, this involves establishing and maintaining contacts with the families of patients or inmates, with local or "home town" pastors, with local church groups, and with interested community organizations to further their interest in the problems of patients or inmates, to strengthen patients' or inmates' ties with them, and to obtain their assistance and cooperation in the institution's program; it includes obtaining the assistance of local clergy for religious services, as may be desired by a patient or inmate. The scope of this function may range from limited contacts to active liaison with various community organizations, and may involve addressing such groups to obtain their understanding and cooperation.

      2. Administration - For the individual chaplain carrying out a religious ministry, this includes such duties as scheduling and coordinating his religious activities with other chaplains in the institution, maintaining statistical records, and reporting on his activities and services. It also often includes program responsibilities such as managing the budget for his program; selecting religious materials; participating in staff meetings; and participating in institutional orientation programs for new staff personnel by giving lectures on and interpreting the objectives of the religious program. At the top program director and staff levels, administrative responsibilities typically include program planning and direction, staffing, development of program standards and guides, and program evaluation.

      3. Training - This includes the development and conduct of formal training programs (e.g., for chaplains, local clergy and/or seminarians). Regular programs may be designed to provide for the learning of pastoral care in an appropriate institutional setting, where an integrated program of theory and supervised practice is provided, with the collaboration of staff in other professions. Such a program may consist of a relatively small in-service type course; or it may be comprehensive in scope, with courses covering one or more levels of development, for seminarians and clergy in training. Also, individual workshops and seminars may be developed and conducted from time to time to advance the on-the-job professional development of the chaplains employed by the department. Short-term workshops may also be developed and conducted for local clergy to further their understanding of the special problems of patients or inmates.

      4. Research - This involves contributing to or conducting investigative studies to advance knowledge and develop ways and means for providing for a more effective religious ministry for patients and inmates. Studies may deal with such aspects as the significance of religion in illness and the relationship of religion to mental health or anti-social behavior. The research activities of the chaplain may consist of an occasional contribution on a significant problem, or they may constitute a major continuing function of his position.

Chaplain, GS-0060-09

The chaplain at this level typically is preparing to assume the responsibilities of an individual religious ministry for a major faith group. For this purpose he usually serves under the direct supervision and guidance of a higher grade chaplain in the capacity of assistant to him. The Chaplain GS-9 typically performs the same range of functions as described for the Chaplain GS-11, but often with specific guidance in reference to the special problems of the institution. For example, his sermons and nonroutine pastoral interviews are subject to evaluation through supervisory review and discussion. Religious services and educational classes are usually conducted independently by him.

In some positions at this level, the chaplain serves independently, without direct supervision from a chaplain in the same location. In this case, the Chaplain GS-9 is assigned to an institution presenting problems which are relatively less difficult than those in most institutions, with a narrower range of opportunity for an expanded pastoral ministry (e.g., a small correctional institution which is characterized by a conventional treatment program for an adult inmate population with no serious behavior problems). Even so, however, his program is given frequent guidance and close review by a staff chaplain.

While the chaplain at this level has the requisite ministerial background and ordination, he usually lacks sufficient pastoral experience and/or related pastoral training to allow him to perform more independently within the institutional setting.

Chaplain, GS-0060-11

Typically, the chaplain at this level independently:

    (1) Provides all necessary religious worship services and religious instruction on an individual or group basis, using, where desirable or available, choirs made up of patients or inmates, and such aids as devotional literature, films, and bedside broadcasts; and

    (2) Carries out a pastoral ministry which includes: (a) pastoral care, involving initial interviews, visits to the various units of the institution, and bedside ministration as necessary; serving as spiritual advisor on moral and religious problems for a patient or inmate and his family in time of crisis; (b) maintenance of contacts with staff members of the other professional disciplines of the institution, usually for exchange of information relative to the background and current condition of the patient or inmate; and (c) maintenance of contacts with the family and local or "home town" clergy, and usually with church groups and interested community organizations as well, to sustain the necessary links with the outside community.

    (3) Coordinates his work schedule with other chaplains of the institution as necessary.

    (4) Carries out related administrative duties and responsibilities, such as maintaining records and reporting on his activities. These duties may also include managing the budget and maintaining the religious equipment and supplies for his program. In some positions in this class, the chaplain may also supervise volunteer groups who offer their services as assistants.

The main distinguishing characteristic of this class is that it represents the first level of independent and responsible professional performance of a religious ministry, but does not represent the degree of professional maturity and breadth of function that, at the GS-12 level, result in the close integration of the religious program into the treatment program of the institution. Specifically, any or all of the following are typical differences between the ministry of the Chaplain GS-11, and the ministry of the Chaplain GS-12: In the GS-11 position, the emphasis is primarily on the religious services as such, and the program is not marked to any significant degree by the kind of intensive pastoral counseling that is an integral part of the total treatment program; working relationships with staff members of the other disciplines do not involve participation as a fully recognized member of an integrated multi-professional "treatment team" in consultative discussions and decision making conferences, as appropriate, on the care and treatment of the patient or inmate; relationships with community and/or families of patients or inmates are limited, rather than of the extensive or intensive nature which characterizes those of the Chaplain GS-12.

Environment has no particular significance as a difficulty factor at the GS-11 level. Environment becomes significant as a difficulty factor only when the institutional program and the professional development and maturity of the chaplain result in a performance of greater depth and breadth.

The Chaplain GS-11 is under the general professional direction of a staff supervisory chaplain who provides standards of performance, program requirements, and performance evaluation through review of the incumbent's activity reports and by program inspections. Questions of a professional nature may be referred to the staff chaplain when the Chaplain GS-11 feels they are beyond his scope of responsibility. The Chaplain GS-11 is also subject to the administrative controls provided by the secular supervisor. Qualifications required to perform the work: The GS-11 grade level is predicated on a combination of (1) the extensive professional preparation required for ordination, and (2) a background of practical pastoral knowledge and skills, such as may typically have been gained through experience (including special pastoral training if necessary), to ensure the independent responsible performance that characterizes.

Chaplain, GS-0060-12

This class involves the independent conduct, on a level of full professional maturity, of an individual religious ministry for a major faith group. The ministry of the Chaplain GS-12 is characterized by a high degree of integration into the total care and treatment program of the institution or complex of institutions or services to which he is assigned. He functions in an environment that presents a concentration of difficult problems. While such an environment may also occur at the GS-11 level, and the basic functions of the GS-11 position are the same as those at this level, the Chaplain GS-12 brings to his position a special background of knowledge and understanding which are applied to bring about a pastoral ministry of considerably expanded dimensions in all major respects as compared with that carried out at the GS-11 level.

In an environment which presents a substantial concentration of difficult problems, the Chaplain GS-12 seeks to actively complement the objectives of the institution for the physical or psychic reconstruction or rehabilitation of its patients or inmates. His ministry, therefore, is carefully integrated with an intensive overall treatment plan. His pastoral care program often requires intensive and extended pastoral counseling as an integral part of the total treatment program, and characteristically involves strong interpersonal relationships with patients or inmates deeply troubled by moral, ethical, or spiritual problems, or those otherwise needing special help. For effective participation of this nature in an intensive treatment program, the Chaplain GS-12, as distinguished from the Chaplain GS-11, must be specially and thoroughly equipped by knowledge and experience to deal with the special problems representative of the type of institution to which assigned.

Environments which typically present a concentration of difficult problems, with the potential climate for a constructive ministry requiring full utilization of the chaplain's special training and specialized or broad related pastoral experience, would include, for example: (a) mental hospitals in which patients may require consideration of their psychological problems before religious philosophy may be advanced. The Chaplain GS-12 is specially prepared, by training and extensive experience typically in this kind of institution, to understand the motivations and deeper hidden needs of these disturbed people, and to direct his pastoral counseling or religious guidance in a way that will have the most therapeutic value; (b) penal and correctional institutions in which inmates are frequently aggressively anti-social and lacking in ethical standards. The Chaplain GS-12 is specially equipped by training and experience typically in this kind of institution to understand the dynamics of behavior involved, and is prepared to work constructively towards redirecting their lives, by influencing their thinking and attitudes, and by motivating them toward self-rehabilitation; (c) general medical and surgical hospitals where there are frequent and acute crisis situations for patients and their families, resulting in constant pressures on the chaplain. In the face of critical illness, surgery or impending death, and under conditions of extreme emotional stress, the chaplain has much shorter periods of time in which to accomplish his mission of providing the necessary spiritual support and guidance. The Chaplain GS-12 utilizes an extensive background of experience to effectively meet these pressures, and to ease the strain for all concerned, so that the hospital staff, also, is enabled to proceed with its objectives; and (d) general medical or surgical hospitals which provide additional medical services such as neuropsychiatric, tuberculosis, geriatrics, etc. In such cases, the Chaplain GS-12 may bring to bear a very broad experience in the various medical services of the hospital and an understanding of the differences in the nature of the problems involved in each kind, in order to deal effectively with them. Also an essential requirement of this level, and an extension of the pastoral care function, is the close working relationships the chaplain has with the staff members of the other professional disciplines. At this level this takes the form of participation with them, as appropriate, as a fully recognized member of an integrated multi-professional treatment team. He participates, as needed, in individual or group consultative discussions or conferences with them to evaluate, review progress of the patient or inmate, discuss appropriate treatment approach, and recommend course of action. The Chaplain GS-12 has an important role in such decision making conferences; for example, a chaplain serving on the classification committee of a correctional institution may evaluate and make a recommendation concerning an inmate's progress or lack of progress within the realm of moral values, which may make the difference in deciding length of his confinement.

By participation in such multi-professional discussions, the chaplain is not only kept informed of what the treatment goal is, but the other professions can draw upon his unique contribution toward the welfare of the patient or inmate. For example: (a) because of the close interpersonal relationship that usually develops between chaplain and patient or inmate, the chaplain can, without violating the privileged communication of the pastoral relationship, often serve as a special communication link between patient or inmate and staff on matters that but be disturbing the patient or inmate but which he is reluctant to talk about to any other staff specialist for fear of misunderstanding or negative response; (b) the chaplain is in a position to advise on religious involvements, where patients and their relatives are concerned; (c) the chaplain can offer informed advice on methods whereby religious understanding and practices can be integrated with the other professional services to attain the necessary therapeutic goals.

Another essential characteristic of this class, which distinguishes it from the GS-11 level, is the chaplain's expanded liaison with the outside community. (Note: The term "outside community" is to be construed to also include the family of the patient or inmate.) This also is an extension of his pastoral care program. The chaplain at this level actively assumes the role of serving as a vital communication link between the individual patient or inmate and the outside community, as well as between the institution itself and the outside community. This contact with the outside is particularly important in the case of such institutions as mental hospital and penal and correctional institutions which, by their very nature, are necessarily shut off from the community. Because such separation from normal contact with the outside world tends to aggravate the feelings of loss by the patient or inmate, the difficulties of achieving an early return to normalcy may be multiplied. The chaplain helps to alleviate this by maintaining constructive bonds with the free community and by strengthening family ties. Through contacts with and addresses to such groups as local clubs, church groups, special agencies, business organizations, and others, he imparts a better understanding of the problems relating to the care and treatment of the sick or confined, and of the role of religion in the institution's program, and advises these groups on how they may assist the institution in its program for reducing or preventing such problems.

In general medical and surgical hospitals, contacts with the outside have to do chiefly with the families of patients, due in large part to the more frequent crisis situations arising for the patient and his family, such as surgery, serious illness or death. Here, too, the chaplain serves as a link between the family and the institution by easing the family's worries, interpreting in lay terms the treatment objectives and obtaining their understanding regarding the need for certain institutional procedures. He may also assist them to reach a decision where, for example, their consent may be required for certain medical or surgical procedures recommended. While family contacts of this nature are found in positions of GS-11 chaplains, in a GS-12 position this responsibility for family counseling is a frequent requirement of the chaplain's position, and is significant to the accomplishment of the institution's objectives.

The Chaplain GS-12 works under the same type of supervisory control as the Chaplain GS-11.Qualifications required to perform the work: To perform his work with full understanding of its relationship to the objectives of the institution, and to successfully integrate it with the work of the institutional staff, the chaplain at this level must have extended his knowledge and skills considerably. Over and above the basic requirements of the Chaplain GS-11 position, the Chaplain GS-12 must have: (1) very good working knowledge of related field of work, in particular the behavioral sciences, to increase his understanding of human behavior. (In particular, he needs to have familiarity with psychiatric and clinical terminology; a good understanding of the theories, practices, and problems of the other disciplines of the hospital staff, together with an understanding of the latest developments in their fields, insofar as they bear on his own work; good understanding of the principles of personality development, treatment of mental and emotional disturbances, behavior patterns, motivation; understanding of group processes; and a thorough knowledge of and expert skill in applying pertinent counseling methods and techniques.) (2) Thorough understanding of and extensive pastoral experience in the special problems involved, so that he is thoroughly skilled in dealing with them. He also should be fully acquainted with the structure, functions, practices, and rules, as well as the traditions of his particular institution (or institutions).

Chaplain Director, GS-0060-12

At this level are positions of directors with top responsibility for the chaplaincy program for a major faith, where the program is characterized by (a) limited participation in the total care and treatment program of the institution, and (b) a religious ministry which is essentially of the same type as that characterizing the individual chaplain position in GS-11. While some programs may include some subprogram development (training, research, community relationship, or religious education if geared to the overall treatment programs), this fact will not remove a position from this class when the basic characteristics of the ministry are as described above. The chaplaincy program of the director typically covers a complex of several institutions or services (e.g., 4 to 7) which present the range of problems which is typical in most Government institutions for the sick or confined; and it serves a patient or inmate population ranging from small (approximately 250-750) to medium size (approximately 1,500-5,000). Because of the limited nature of his total chaplaincy program, the difficulty of problems which may be present in the environment does not have sufficient classification weight to take the director position out of this class into the next higher grade level.

A chaplain director has full responsibility for the total religious program for a major faith, without any supervisory chaplain position over him within his agency. This total professional independence is not a characteristic of the Chaplain GS-11 who carries out the same type of ministry as the incumbent, nor of the Chaplain GS-12 who carries out a ministry which is highly integrated into the institutional program. The Chaplain Director GS-12 has not only the administrative responsibilities of program management, but also full professional responsibility for establishing standards and guides for his program, and for carrying out his program with complete professional independence, subject only to the administrative controls provided by the supervisory secular administrator. While the chaplain in this class may participate with the other staff disciplines to some extent, particularly in periodic administrative staff meetings, he does not do so as a full member of a multi-professional treatment team.

In addition to his program responsibilities, the chaplain director often individually performs much of the work of the program himself. He also usually functions with the assistance of and supervises one or two subordinate staff chaplains and/or visiting seminarians, local clergy, and volunteer groups.

Qualifications required to perform the work: In addition to the professional knowledge and skills required of the Chaplain GS-11, the Chaplain Director GS-12 needs administrative and supervisory abilities. He also must have a good appreciation of the problems involved in the type or types of institution under his program, based on experience typically gained by considerable pastoral work within the type of institution(s) served. He also needs to have good operating knowledge of the organization, regulations, practices, and program goals of his department or agency in relationship to his own program.

Chaplain Director, GS-0060-13

At this level are positions of top directors of chaplaincy programs for one or more major faiths when the scope of the program substantially exceeds that characteristic of the Chaplain Director GS-12. Differences may involve various combinations of the factors of extent of program development, size, and exceptionally difficult environmental problems. In all cases, as an essential characteristic, the chaplaincy program at this level is carefully and closely integrated into the total care and treatment program in order to further the mission of the institution. Such a program involves an expanded pastoral ministry which in all respects is at least of the same type as that characterizing the individual Chaplain GS-12; i.e., it includes intensive pastoral counseling, close integral working relationships with other staff disciplines, and active community liaison, and requires that the incumbent be specially and thoroughly equipped by knowledge and experience to deal with the special problems presented by the institutional environment in which he serves.

Another essential characteristic of this level, which distinguishes it from the director in GS-12, is the active participation of the Chaplain Director GS-13 with other staff members on matters concerning institutional policies, as well as individual treatment problems. This includes not only participation, as needed, with other specialists as a fully recognized member of a multi-professional treatment team, but also active participation as a key administrative staff member of the organization, with other program heads and the institution's administrator, in decision making conferences concerning policies, practices and regulations affecting the care and treatment program of the institution.

Other essential characteristics are the same as for the Chaplain Director GS-12. These include full program responsibility and professional independence, while subject only to secular administrative controls; and the exercise of supervision over subordinate chaplains and/or visiting assistants. Often, the chaplain in these classes of positions will individually perform much of the work of the program himself.

Illustrative of program responsibility at this level are the following:

  • A director's program which serves a population of medium size approximately 1,500-5,000). His pastoral ministry, including the pastoral care program, working relationships with the staff in other professions, and community liaison, is fully expanded and integrated into an intensive total care and treatment program. In addition, the chaplaincy program usually includes some development of one or more subprograms (training, research, community relationships, or religious education if geared to the intensive overall treatment program), to advance the religious program and the mission of the institution. Typically, the director's total program covers a complex of several institutions (e.g., 4 to 7) which present the range of difficult problems which is typical in most Government institutions for the sick or confined. While this institutional environment may be of the same nature as that of the Chaplain Director GS-12, the latter's more limited program does not require the special knowledge and experience, nor involve the scope and depth of pastoral ministry, which characterize the individual Chaplain GS-12 or the program of the Chaplain Director GS-13.
  • Positions of directors of chaplaincy programs serving a population of small size (approximately 250-750) may also reach this level if, in addition to a fully expanded pastoral ministry constructively integrated into the institution's treatment program, other factors are present to substantially expand the scope or depth of the director's total program. For example, the program may include strong subprogram activity in one or more highly developed functional areas (training, etc.), and/or serve in an environmental setting presenting exceptionally difficult problems, as follows:

    In the first case, the factor of strong subprogram development, in combination with a fully expanded pastoral ministry which functions

    as an integral part of an intensive overall treatment program, adds to the scope of the director's program, and to the difficulty and total program responsibility of his position, as compared with the more limited program scope of the director in GS-12. The range of difficult problems presented by the environmental setting, and the special knowledge and experience required to perform the work are essentially similar to those of the GS-13 director of the program serving a medium-sized population, as above. In the other case, the director's program covers a complex of several institutions, any one or all of which present problems of exceptional difficulty. Since virtually all chaplains in Government institutions function in situations which present difficult problems, the characteristic of exceptional difficulty is limited to situations where very special treatment programs are required and the incumbent must have highly specialized knowledge and experience, to an extent which is almost that of a professional specialist in the particular field involved. For example, in an institution for juvenile delinquents who have serious behavior problems and who are lacking in any supportive background as a base for reconstructive work, the programs may involve much more intensive individualized treatment of the inmate than in most institutions, in order to instill new values and to influence him to achieve self-rehabilitation with new attitudes and outlook. To work effectively here, the incumbent needs a particularly specialized preparation through training and experience to understand and cope effectively with the special problems of these young people.

Qualification requirements for this level of director include, as a minimum, the full complement of the knowledge and skills required of the individual Chaplain GS-12, and additionally include leadership, management, and supervisory abilities. Directors of programs with a small population coverage in an exceptionally difficult environmental setting are further required to have considerably more than a working knowledge of the behavioral sciences; they require additional specialized knowledge of the particular field involved (e.g., crime control) to an extent that is almost the equivalent of professional knowledge. The background of any chaplain director in GS-13 must have provided such skills and knowledge (as could have been acquired through extensive pastoral work within the types of institutions under his program) as will enable him to thoroughly understand and be highly effective in dealing with the special problems involved. He also should have thorough operating knowledge of his agency's organization, its rules, and practices, and full understanding of its program goals in relation to his own program.

Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement

Educational requirements for entry into the clergy vary greatly. Similar to other professional occupations, about 3 out of 4 members of the clergy have completed at least a bachelor�s degree. Many denominations require that clergy complete a bachelor�s degree and a graduate-level program of theological study; others will admit anyone who has been �called� to the vocation. Some faiths do not allow women to become clergy; however, others, mainly in Protestant churches, do. Men and women considering careers in the clergy should consult their religious leaders to verify specific entrance requirements.

Individuals considering a career in the clergy should realize they are choosing not only a career but also a way of life. In fact, most members of the clergy remain in their chosen vocation throughout their lives; in 2002, almost 10 percent of clergy were 65 or older, compared with only 3 percent of workers in all occupations.

Religious leaders must exude confidence and motivation, while remaining tolerant and able to listen to the needs of others. They should be capable of making difficult decisions, working under pressure, and living up to the moral standards set by their faith and community.

Earnings

Median annual wages of federal government Chaplains are urban and regional planners were $67,369 in January 2011.

Sources of Additional Information

Information on careers, salaries, and certification in urban and regional planning is available from:

  • American Planning Association, 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036. Internet: http://www.planning.org

Information on accredited urban and regional planning programs is available from:

  • Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, 6311 Mallard Trace, Tallahassee, FL 32312. Internet: http://www.acsp.org

Information on obtaining Chaplain positions with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management through USAJOBS, the Federal Government's official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724–1850 or  (703) 724–1850  or TDD (978) 461–8404 and   (978) 461–8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. For advice on how to find and apply for Federal jobs, download the Insider's Guide to the Federal Hiring Process” online here.

Sources:

  • Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition; and
  • Office of Personnel Management, Position Classification Standards.

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