- The work can be stressful and hazardous; correctional officers have one of the highest rates of nonfatal on-the-job injuries.
- Most jobs are in State and local government prisons and jails.
- Job opportunities are expected to be favorable.
Correctional officers, also known as detention officers when they work in pretrial detention facilities, are responsible for overseeing individuals who have been arrested and are awaiting trial or who have been convicted of a crime and sentenced to serve time in a jail, reformatory, or penitentiary.
The jail population changes constantly as some prisoners are released, some are convicted and transferred to prison, and new offenders are arrested and enter the system. Correctional officers in local jails admit and process about 13 million people a year, with nearly 800,000 offenders in jail at any given time. Correctional officers in State and Federal prisons watch over the approximately 1.6 million offenders who are incarcerated there at any given time. Typically, offenders serving time at county jails are sentenced to a year or less. Those serving a year or more are usually housed in state or federal prisons.
Correctional officers maintain security and inmate accountability to prevent disturbances, assaults, and escapes. Officers have no law enforcement responsibilities outside of the institution where they work.
Regardless of the setting, correctional officers maintain order within the institution and enforce rules and regulations. To help ensure that inmates are orderly and obey rules, correctional officers monitor the activities and supervise the work assignments of inmates. Sometimes, officers must search inmates and their living quarters for contraband like weapons or drugs, settle disputes between inmates, and enforce discipline. Correctional officers periodically inspect the facilities, checking cells and other areas of the institution for unsanitary conditions, contraband, fire hazards, and any evidence of infractions of rules. In addition, they routinely inspect locks, window bars, grilles, doors, and gates for signs of tampering. Finally, officers inspect mail and visitors for prohibited items.
Correctional officers report orally and in writing on inmate conduct and on the quality and quantity of work done by inmates. Officers also report security breaches, disturbances, violations of rules, and any unusual occurrences. They usually keep a daily log or record of their activities. Correctional officers cannot show favoritism and must report any inmate who violates the rules. If a crime is committed within their institution or an inmate escapes, they help the responsible law enforcement authorities investigate or search for the escapee. In jail and prison facilities with direct supervision of cellblocks, officers work unarmed. They are equipped with communications devices so that they can summon help if necessary. These officers often work in a cellblock alone, or with another officer, among the 50 to 100 inmates who reside there. The officers enforce regulations primarily through their interpersonal communication skills and through the use of progressive sanctions, such as the removal of some privileges.
In the highest security facilities, where the most dangerous inmates are housed, correctional officers often monitor the activities of prisoners from a centralized control center with closed-circuit television cameras and a computer tracking system. In such an environment, the inmates may not see anyone but officers for days or weeks at a time and may leave their cells only for showers, solitary exercise time, or visitors. Depending on the offenders' security classification, correctional officers may have to restrain inmates in handcuffs and leg irons to safely escort them to and from cells and other areas and to see authorized visitors. Officers also escort prisoners between the institution and courtrooms, medical facilities, and other destinations.
Bailiffs, also known as marshals or court officers, are law enforcement officers who maintain safety and order in courtrooms. Their duties, which vary by location, include enforcing courtroom rules, assisting judges, guarding juries from outside contact, delivering court documents, and providing general security for courthouses.
Work environment. Working in a correctional institution can be stressful and hazardous. Every year, correctional officers are injured in confrontations with inmates. Correctional officers and jailers have one of the highest rates of nonfatal on-the-job injuries. First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers also face the risk of work-related injury. Correctional officers may work indoors or outdoors. Some correctional institutions are well lighted, temperature controlled, and ventilated, but others are old, overcrowded, hot, and noisy. Although both jails and prisons can be dangerous places to work, prison populations are more stable than jail populations, and correctional officers in prisons know the security and custodial requirements of the prisoners with whom they are dealing. Consequently, they tend to be safer places to work.
Correctional officers usually work an 8-hour day, 5 days a week, on rotating shifts. Some correctional facilities have longer shifts and more days off between scheduled work weeks. Because prison and jail security must be provided around the clock, officers work all hours of the day and night, weekends, and holidays. In addition, officers may be required to work paid overtime.
This is a developmental level. GS-6 correctional officers receive classroom instruction and on-the-job training in the philosophy, methods, and techniques of corrections and of the correctional officer's role within the correctional system. Formal instruction includes such topics as: nature and purpose of correctional institutions; institutional organization; human behavior and interpersonal relations; standards of conduct; security requirements; legal requirements regarding the rights of inmates and the collection and preservation of evidence for use in court proceedings; etc. On-the-job training includes rotational assignments to various posts to observe and put into practice the methods and techniques learned in the orientation. Initial assignments are typically to posts with a minimum of contact with inmates. As correctional officers gain experience and confidence, assignments are expanded to include direct custody and supervision of inmate groups.
In comparison with GS-6 correctional officers who receive on-the-job training in the various post assignments, Correctional Officers GS-7 independently perform, typically on a rotational basis, a variety of moderately difficult assignments. Such assignments require proficiency in the application of correctional skills in supervising inmate activities on work details, in recreational activities, in living quarters during morning or day watches, etc. These assignments involve regular contacts with individual or small groups of inmates. They allow significant opportunity for correctional officers to motivate inmates to acceptable behavior. The assignments involve advising and counseling inmates regarding adjustment to institution life, resolution of personal problems, and acceptance of professional assistance in the rehabilitative process.
The following are examples of GS-7 correctional officer assignments (these examples are illustrative of grade-level concepts and are not intended to limit the types of assignments at the GS-7 level):
- 1. Immediate supervision of small (e.g., 10 inmates) work details such as grounds maintenance, road building, etc.;
- 2. Direct supervision of inmates in living quarters during the day watch where the number of inmates at anyone time is small, or on the morning watch when the inmates either are sleeping or have prescribed activities;
- 3. upervision of groups of inmates during outside activities, e.g., recreation, free time, etc., when the situation allows officer-inmate contacts on a regular basis.
Correctional Officers GS-7 also participate with officers of higher grade in performing such assignments as supervising large work details, supervising inmates in living quarters on the evening watch, and performing admission and orientation functions.
GS-8 correctional officers regularly perform a variety of very difficult assignments in a correctional institution. Such assignments, based on the recognition of superior correctional skills of the incumbent, require the judgment, maturity, and knowledge of inmate behavior developed through experience gained in a wide variety of assignments.
GS-8 correctional officers typically supervise groups of inmates in situations that are critical to the effectiveness of the correctional treatment program and to the efficient operation of the institution. Assignments involve contacts with inmates that present substantially continuous opportunity for the officer to use his extensive experience and superior correctional skills and abilities in influencing the attitudes and motivation of offenders towards socially acceptable behavior and in adapting to the institution environment and rehabilitation programs.
The following are examples of GS-8 correctional officer assignments (these examples are illustrative of grade-level concepts and are not intended to limit the types of assignments at the GS-8 level):
- 1. Custody of newly committed offenders with responsibility for developing information through interview and observation and making recommendations regarding quarters assignments, work assignments, security classification, and individual program goals. The officer gives inmates a complete orientation in the procedures and expectations of the institution. This initial contact between an inmate and the correctional force is vital in influencing the offender's behavior and rehabilitation during his entire stay at the institution.
- 2. Direct responsibility for supervising the activities of inmates in quarters during the evening period when he must effectively control a large group under relaxed, less regulated conditions. In some instances, he is assisted by one or two correctional officers of lower grade. In addition to encouraging constructive activities and maintaining discipline and security, the GS-8 correctional officer uses the relaxed atmosphere to talk with individuals and small groups to resolve problems, to stimulate cooperation, and to establish positive correctional attitudes.
- 3. Coordination of work release and/or study release programs with responsibility for making satisfactory arrangements for meeting the needs of inmates while outside the institution, such as finances, transportation, etc.; maintaining contacts with employers to be aware of problems that may develop; and counseling inmates on any work, school, or personal problems that might complicate the offender's rehabilitation.
- 4. Direct responsibility for supervising inmates with particularly serious behavior problems (e.g., assaultive, unmanageable, deviant sexual behavior) who are in a segregation status. The officer has the opportunity, because of the lack of mobility of the inmates, to spend considerable time in attempting to recognize and understand their correctional problems. He helps them understand the undesirability of their behavior and the advantages of more acceptable attitudes, and generally attempts to create and maintain a correctional, rather than a punitive, atmosphere.
Correctional Officers GS-9 perform functions requiring the application of technical treatment and/or counseling skills and techniques acquired through formal and supervised practical training. These skills and techniques are normally associated with services provided by professionals in social work or the behavioral sciences. However, the GS-9 correctional officer applies a practical knowledge of the specific techniques under the guidance of professional workers, without the broad theoretical knowledges and insights acquired through professional education and training. In comparison, the GS-8 correctional officer attempts to influence the attitudes of offenders towards acceptable behavior using correctional skills developed through personal experience and concentrated training in dealing with offenders, rather than by the use of more formalized methods.
Assignments at this level are typically in direct support of structured treatment or rehabilitation programs. They may be in a correctional institution or in a correctional setting outside the institution, such as a community treatment center. Working within the framework of program goals and methodology established by professional workers, the GS-9 officer applies these techniques and his extensive correctional experience to establish effective communication with the offender and help him recognize and resolve problems relating to himself, his family, and the community environment. He aids the inmate to appraise his problems realistically and to understand and accept his limitations and capabilities. In some situations, the GS-9 officer also deals with individuals outside the correctional system, such as teachers, supervisors, family, etc., to identify further problems and enlist their aid in resolving them.
The following are examples of GS-9 correctional officer assignments (these examples are illustrative of grade-level concepts and are not intended to limit the types of assignments at the GS-level):
- 1. Serves as a correctional counselor in a specialized treatment program for inmates addicted to narcotics. As a full member of the treatment team, the GS-9 officer makes recommendations and participates in decisions concerning the operation of the treatment program. He conducts group therapy sessions, dormitory and community meetings, self-help sessions, or other formal activities required by the particular program. He works with an assigned caseload of individual inmates to provide a variety of services. These services include individual counseling on problems confronting offenders in general, and addicts in particular; writing or assisting inmates in writing correspondence; arranging for special visits outside the institution, such as emergency home visits; approving visitor and correspondence lists; etc. Serves as liaison between treatment program staff and other institutional staff members (i.e., correctional force, educational, vocational, etc.) to provide detailed information on problems concerning individual inmates who are included in his caseload. In performing these duties, the GS-9 correctional officer uses the skills and techniques learned from classroom and supervised practical training by professional psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers in such areas as group counseling techniques, "Therapeutic Community" techniques, transactional analysis, reality therapy, sensitivity training, and personal interviewing.
- 2. Serves as a counselor in a Community Treatment Center providing a program of rehabilitation and reintegration into the free community. In this setting, GS-9 correctional officers are typically assigned a caseload of offenders for which they provide counseling and assistance on a wide range of problems, under the general guidance of the Center Director and/or professional social worker. The work involves such functions as obtaining background information through personal interview; explaining the services that the Center can provide; counseling offenders (and their families when available) on work, family, personal adjustment and other problems; referring offenders to sources of additional help in the community; maintaining contacts with employers to attempt to resolve problems before they interfere with the offenders' progress; and conducting group discussions among residents of the Center on common difficulties encountered in the free community and the ways in which to deal with these difficulties and overcome them. GS-9 correctional officers in this type of assignment utilize a knowledge of behavioral characteristics of offenders developed through extensive experience in working with and counseling inmates. In addition, they apply counseling techniques and a knowledge of community resources attained through formalized training and practical experience under the guidance and supervision of professional social workers.
Correctional officers go through a training academy and then are assigned to a facility where they learn most of what they need to know for their work through on-the-job training. Qualifications vary by agency, but all agencies require a high school diploma or equivalent, and some also require some college education or full-time work experience. Military experience is often seen as a plus for corrections employment.
Education and training. A high school diploma or graduation equivalency degree is required by all employers. The Federal Bureau of Prisons requires entry-level correctional officers to have at least a bachelor's degree; 3 years of full-time experience in a field providing counseling, assistance, or supervision to individuals; or a combination of the two. Some State and local corrections agencies require some college credits, but law enforcement or military experience may be substituted to fulfill this requirement.
Federal, State, and some local departments of corrections provide training for correctional officers based on guidelines established by the American Correctional Association and the American Jail Association. Some States have regional training academies that are available to local agencies. At the conclusion of formal instruction, all State and local correctional agencies provide on-the-job training, including training on legal restrictions and interpersonal relations. Many systems require firearms proficiency and self-defense skills. Officer trainees typically receive several weeks or months of training in an actual job setting under the supervision of an experienced officer. However, on-the-job training varies widely from agency to agency.
Academy trainees generally receive instruction in a number of subjects, including institutional policies, regulations, and operations, as well as custody and security procedures. New Federal correctional officers must undergo 200 hours of formal training within the first year of employment. They also must complete 120 hours of specialized training at the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons residential training center at Glynco, Georgia, within 60 days of their appointment. Experienced officers receive annual in-service training to keep abreast of new developments and procedures.
Correctional officers that are members of prison tactical response teams are trained to respond to disturbances, riots, hostage situations, forced cell moves, and other potentially dangerous confrontations. Team members practice disarming prisoners wielding weapons, protecting themselves and inmates against the effects of chemical agents, and other tactics.
Other qualifications. All institutions require correctional officers to be at least 18 to 21 years of age, be a U.S. citizen or permanent resident, and have no felony convictions. New applicants for Federal corrections positions must be appointed before they are 37 years old. Some institutions require previous experience in law enforcement or the military, but college credits can be substituted to fulfill this requirement. Others require a record of previous job stability, usually accomplished through 2 years of work experience, which need not be related to corrections or law enforcement.
Correctional officers must be in good health. Candidates for employment are generally required to meet formal standards of physical fitness, eyesight, and hearing. In addition, many jurisdictions use standard tests to determine applicant suitability to work in a correctional environment. Good judgment and the ability to think and act quickly are indispensable. Applicants are typically screened for drug abuse, subject to background checks, and required to pass a written examination.
Advancement. Qualified officers may advance to the position of correctional sergeant. Correctional sergeants supervise correctional officers and usually are responsible for maintaining security and directing the activities of other officers during an assigned shift or in an assigned area. Ambitious and qualified correctional officers can be promoted to supervisory or administrative positions all the way up to warden. In some jurisdictions, corrections officers are given the opportunity to “bid” for a specialty assignment, such as working in correctional industries, correctional health or correctional counseling, and receive additional training. Promotion prospects may be enhanced by attending college. Officers sometimes transfer to related jobs, such as probation officer, parole officer, and correctional treatment specialist.
Correctional officers and jailors held about 454,500 jobs in 2008, while first-line supervisors and managers of correctional officers held about 43,500 jobs. An additional 20,200 workers were employed as bailiffs. The vast majority of correctional officers and jailors and their supervisors were employed by State and local government in correctional institutions such as prisons, prison camps, and youth correctional facilities.
Employment growth is expected to be as fast as the average for all occupations, and job opportunities are expected to be favorable.
Employment change. Employment of correctional officers is expected to grow 9 percent between 2008 and 2018, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Increasing demand for correctional officers will stem from population growth and rising rates of incarceration. Mandatory sentencing guidelines calling for longer sentences and reduced parole for inmates are a primary reason for increasing incarceration rates. Some States are reconsidering mandatory sentencing guidelines because of budgetary constraints, court decisions, and doubts about their effectiveness. Some employment opportunities also will arise in the private sector, as public authorities contract with private companies to provide and staff corrections facilities. Both State and Federal corrections agencies are increasingly using private prisons.
Job prospects. Job opportunities for correctional officers are expected to be favorable. The need to replace correctional officers who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force, coupled with rising employment demand, will generate job openings. In the past, some local and State corrections agencies have experienced difficulty in attracting and keeping qualified applicants, largely because of low salaries, shift work, and the concentration of jobs in rural locations. This situation is expected to continue.
Median annual wages of correctional officers and jailers were $38,380 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $29,660 and $51,000. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25,300, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $64,110. Median annual wages in the public sector were $50,830 in the Federal Government, $38,850 in State government, and $37,510 in local government. In the facilities support services industry, where the relatively small number of officers employed by privately operated prisons is classified, median annual wages were $28,790.
Median annual wages of first-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers were $57,380 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $41,740 and $73,630. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,300, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $86,970. Median annual wages were $57,050 in State government and $57,300 in local government.
Median annual wages of bailiffs were $37,820 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $26,730 and $51,470. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $18,750, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $61,500. Median annual wages were $32,690 in local government.
In March 2009, the average salary for Federal correctional officers was $53,459. Federal salaries were slightly higher in areas where prevailing local pay levels were higher.
In addition to typical benefits, correctional officers employed in the public sector are usually provided with uniforms or a clothing allowance to purchase their own uniforms. Civil service systems or merit boards cover officers employed by the Federal Government and most State governments. Their retirement coverage entitles correctional officers to retire at age 50 after 20 years of service or at any age with 25 years of service. Unionized correctional officers often have slightly higher wages and benefits.
Other protective service occupations include:
Further information about correctional officers is available from:
- American Correctional Association, 206 N. Washington St., Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.aca.org
- American Jail Association, 1135 Professional Ct., Hagerstown, MD 21740. Internet: http://www.corrections.com/aja
- Information on entrance requirements, training, and career opportunities for correctional officers at the Federal level may be obtained from the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Internet: http://www.bop.gov
Information on obtaining Correctional Officer positions with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management through USAJOBS, the Federal Government's official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724–1850 or (703) 724–1850 or TDD (978) 461–8404 and (978) 461–8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. For advice on how to find and apply for Federal jobs, download the Insider's Guide to the Federal Hiring Process” online here.
- Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition; and
- Office of Personnel Management, Position Classification Standards.